In this study we tested the hypothesis that the expansion of PAPD to include content related to negative moods and non-specific personality pathology compromised its discriminant validity. Furthermore, a conjoint factor analysis yielded a strong first factor moodiness which appeared less specific to passive aggressive behavior than three other factors irresponsibility, inadequacy and contempt. We conclude that future research on this potentially important clinical construct should focus on core passive aggressive features and abandon the negativistic content that has been added to it in successive editions of the DSM. Clinicians and clinical theorists seem to continue to value the concept. For instance, Benjamin recommends routine assessment of passive aggressive features because of the potential for passive aggressive behavior to undermine the successful treatment of other primary e.
A Comparison of Passive Aggressive and Negativistic Personality Disorders
Constipation is the most commonly seen defecation problem related to several environmental factors. Defecation is learned in the childhood anal period in which anal characteristic features appear. Problems in the childhood anal period may affect not only characters but also defecation function. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between constipation and anal characteristic features of participants with functional constipation. Patients with irritable bowel disease, slow transit constipation, outlet obstruction constipation, malignancy, and psychiatric diseases were excluded from the study. The results were compared with healthy individuals.
I appreciate that a second paragraph was added, but it's unsourced and it conflicts some with my understanding of the term, so I'd like to see a valid reference if it's to be included. Here's the text I removed:. The so-called "anal" stage of infantile development denoted and named from discovering and playing with the infant's own feces is also characterized by learning that screaming and yelling causes a parental response. This learned cause and effect carried on later in life was named anal-retentive - or to stay in the retain anal developmental stage.